Labor input of women tobacco farmers in Tabora, Tanzania (2024)

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Costs, revenues and profits: an economic analysis of smallholder tobacco farmer livelihoods in Malawi

Raphael Lencucha, Jeffrey Drope, Ronald Labonte, Fastone Goma

Background The preservation of the economic livelihood of tobacco farmers is a common argument used to oppose tobacco control measures. However, little empirical evidence exists about these livelihoods. We seek to evaluate the economic livelihoods of individual tobacco farmers in Malawi, including how much money they earn from selling tobacco, and the costs they incur to produce the crop, including labour inputs. We also evaluate farmers' decisions to contract directly with firms that buy their crops. Methods We designed and implemented an economic survey of 685 tobacco farmers, including both independent and contract farmers, across the 6 main tobacco-growing districts. We augmented the survey with focus group discussions with subsets of respondents from each region to refine our inquiries. Results Contract farmers cultivating tobacco in Malawi as their main economic livelihoods are typically operating at margins that place their households well below national poverty thresholds, while independent farmers are typically operating at a loss. Even when labour is excluded from the calculation of income less costs, farmers' gross margins place most households in the bottom income decile of the overall population. Tobacco farmers appear to contract principally as a means to obtain credit, which is consistently reported to be difficult to obtain. Conclusions The tobacco industry narrative that tobacco farming is a lucrative economic endeavour for smallholder farmers is demonstrably inaccurate in the context of Malawi. From the perspective of these farmers, tobacco farming is an economically challenging livelihood for most.

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Challenges Facing FCV Tobacco Farmers in India and Tanzania: An Empirical Scrutiny

2017 •

Maige Mwasimba

Agriculture is regarded as a dominant activity for individual and governments development. Agriculture has played a great role to change the economies and development in substantial magnitude. Despite of being a gear to development, agriculture is prone to many challenges that hold it down. FCV tobacco farming is non exceptional on facing these challenges. Smallholder farmers are more challenged by these difficulties than large-scale farmers. Low and Medium Income Countries (LMICs) are also suffering more than Large Income Countries (LICs) when it comes to FCV tobacco growing. Researchers were eager to know specific challenges facing FCV tobacco farmers of India and Tanzania as discover whether these two countries are experiencing the same challenges. And also to know whether the challenges common to these two countries are also common to other countries growing FCV tobacco.

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Developing Country Studies

Gender Disparities in Expenditure of Income from Tobacco in Urambo District, Tanzania

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Timothy Petro Chombo

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A history of peasant tobacco production in Ruvuma Region, Southern Tanzania, c.1930-2016

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Herbert Ndomba

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Developing Country Studies Gender Disparities in Expenditure of Income from Tobacco in Urambo District, Tanzania

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Advance in Biological Research

Tobacco Production Practice of Smallholder in Bilate, Wolaita and Hawassa tobacco farms, Ethiopia

2020 •

Daniel A B E B E Geletu

This study was conducted tobacco growing farmers' house hold in the Wolaita ,Bilatte and Hawassa tobacco farms in Southern Nations, Nationalities and peoples' Regional state, Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to investigate socioeconomic and technical factors that affect tobacco production smallholder tobacco producers at southern Ethiopia. In conducting the research, data relevant to the study were collected from both primary and secondary sources. Prior to interviewed back ground information and secondary data were collected from extension section of each tobacco development farm. Two peasant associations (PAs) were selected totally 30 sample farmers were randomly selected from each district based on tobacco production potential. Surveys were used to measured like area of plots with tobacco plants, household farming practiced at present and in the past, other crop species planted before, labor source, farm size and input. The findings from this study point to several recommendations for research, extension, and policy makers. The study recommended technologies to mitigate farmer's labor shortage, regularly revised price of green tobacco price policies, good relation with local administrator and training of smallholder tobacco producers that would increase number of tobacco producers.

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Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development

Effect of contract tobacco farming on the welfare of smallholder farmers in Angonia District, Mozambique

2017 •

Isaac Mambo

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Tanzanian economic review

Agricultural Inputs and Efficiency in Tanzania Small Scale Agriculture: A Comparative Analysis of Tobacco and Selected Food Crops

2013 •

Ernest Ngeh Tingum

In this study an attempt is made to compare the efficiency in tobacco leaf production with three other cereals - maize, ground nut and rice - commonly grown by Tanzanian small scale farmers. The paper reviews the prevalence of tobacco use in Africa with that of the developed world; while there was a decline in the latter there appears to be an increase in the former. The economic benefit and costs of tobacco production and consumption in Tanzania are also compared. Using a nationally representative large scale data we were able to observe that modern agricultural inputs allotted to tobacco was much higher than those allotted to maize, ground nut and rice. Using A Frontier Production approach, the study shows that the efficiency of tobacco, maize, groundnuts and rice were 75.3%, 68.5%, 64.5% and 46.5% respectively. Despite the infusion of massive agricultural input allotted to it, tobacco is still 75.3% efficient-tobacco farmers should have produced the same amount by utilizing only ...

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Journal of development and agricultural economics

A comparative analysis of technical efficiency of smallholder tobacco and maize farmers in Tabora, Tanzania

2015 •

Ernest Ngeh

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The Impact of Contract Farming on Smallholder Tobacco Farmers’ Household Incomes: A Case Study of Makoni District, Manicaland Province, Zimbabwe

2017 •

Lighton Dube

This purpose of this paper was to assess the impact of contract farming on household income. The study used primary data collected using a structured questionnaire from a random sample of 98 smallholder tobacco farmers in Makoni district of Zimbabwe. The study found that despite contract farmers selling on average 1.6 times the number of bales sold by non-contract farmers, they only realised an average income that was 1.4 times higher than that realised by non-contract farmers. The study also found that tobacco farming is the major source of livelihood for farmers in Makoni district contributing on average 73% of the households’ annual income. Using a Tobit regression model, the study found that being a contract farmer does not have a significant effect on the share of tobacco income to total household income. The factors that significantly and positively influence the share of tobacco income to total household income are gender of the farmer, access to extension on tobacco producti...

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Labor input of women tobacco farmers in Tabora, Tanzania (2024)


Labor input of women tobacco farmers in Tabora, Tanzania? ›

Out of the 198 days devoted to tobacco farming, 43 percent is undertaken by women. The contribution to labor input by children is only 5 percent.

Which regions grow tobacco in Tanzania? ›

Tobacco Growing Areas
TABORAKaliuaVirginia Flue Cured
SikongeVirginia Flue Cured
SINGIDAVirginia Flue Cured
SHINYANGAKahamaVirginia Flue Cured
33 more rows

What is the economy of tobacco farming in Kenya? ›

The survey found that when you subtract the total cost of physical inputs from the farmers' tobacco sales, most experience only a small profit (an average of 22,084.61 KsH (about 253.78 US dollars) per acre for contract farmers and 34,305.20 KsH (about 394.21US dollars) per acre for independent farmers).

What are the challenges faced by tobacco farmers in Zimbabwe? ›

The results further indicated that there are more opportunities received by tobacco farmers such as receiving inputs at no cost but face challenges such as poor crop yields due to low producer price (55%), high cost of production (30%), low rainfall (9%) and shortage of firewood (6%).

How many tobacco farmers are there in Zimbabwe? ›

Tobacco land use grew to 117,000 hectares this year from 110,000 hectares in 2022, according to the TIMB. The industry also saw an increase in the number of tobacco farmers to 148,527 this year from 123,000 in 2022.

Which country is the largest producer of tobacco in Africa? ›

Zimbabwe is the largest grower of tobacco in Africa, and the 4th largest grower in the world. Three types of tobacco have traditionally been grown in the country: Virginia flue-cured, burley and oriental tobacco.

Where are the most tobacco farms located? ›

The leading tobacco producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, Kentucky, and Tennessee. North Carolina lies in the Virginia-Carolina tobacco belt and topped the list in 2022 with a tobacco production over 249 million pounds.

Is tobacco farming labor intensive? ›

Tobacco was one of the most labor intensive and time-consuming crops grown in the American colonies.

What are the disadvantages of tobacco farming? ›

Tobacco growing and curing (the drying of the tobacco leaf) are both direct causes of deforestation, because forests are cleared for tobacco plantations and wood is burned to cure tobacco. Deforestation is a cause of climate change, soil erosion, reduced soil fertility and disrupted water cycles.

What is the best environment for tobacco farming? ›

Air-cured, dark tobacco is grown on silty loam to clay loam soils, while fire-cured and air-cured, light tobacco is mostly grown on medium textured soils. The crop is sensitive to waterlogging and demands well-aerated and drained soils. The optimum pH ranges from 5 to 6.5.

How profitable is tobacco farming? ›

Average returns over cash expenses exceed $2,000 per acre. Tobacco farms devote 6 percent of their land to tobacco, on average, but they obtain an average of 79 percent of their gross income from tobacco.

What was the problem for the tobacco farmers? ›

Deforestation, child labour and a multitude of health hazards have been associated with tobacco growing across countries and regions. 8 The crude disregard of these problems in efforts to promote tobacco as an economic commodity demonstrates how embedded the narrative of prosperity has become in policy spheres.

What was the settlers greatest problem in having success with growing tobacco? ›

Growing tobacco takes its toil on the soil. Because tobacco drained the soil of its nutrients, only about three successful growing seasons could occur on a plot of land. Then the land had to lie fallow for three years before the soil could be used again.

Which regions cultivate tobacco in Tanzania? ›

Tanzania is Africa's fourth largest producer of tobacco, growing flue-, fire-, and air-cured (burley) varieties, mainly in central western Tanzania and the Southern Highlands.

How many people work in tobacco farms? ›

Tobacco farming

More than 15 million people are involved in tobacco growing on approximately 3 million farms, at a total output value of more than USD 16.7 billion. The production of tobacco leaf is going down, having decreased by approximately 4% per year between 2013 and 2017.

Is tobacco farming profitable in Kenya? ›

Given the typically unprofitable nature of tobacco farming, it is important to provide empirical and detailed reasons why smallholder tobacco farmers are attracted to tobacco farming, why they continue to cultivate it, and what can be done to transition them to other livelihoods.

Which region was known for growing tobacco? ›

During the colonial period, the region that was best known for growing tobacco was the Southern colonies, specifically Virginia and Maryland. Tobacco became a major cash crop in the Southern colonies due to the favorable climate and soil conditions for its cultivation.

What are the growing areas of tobacco? ›

In India tobacco is predominantly cultivated in AP, Gujarat, Karnataka, UP and Bihar.

What region is tobacco native to? ›

Tobacco is derived from the leaves of the genus Nicotiana, a plant from the night-shade family, indigenous to North and South America. Archeological studies suggest the use of tobacco in around first century BC, when Maya people of Central America used tobacco leaves for smoking, in sacred and religious ceremonies.

Where is tobacco most commonly grown? ›

North Carolina and Kentucky are the States that Grow the Most Tobacco in America. The total U.S. annual tobacco consumption was recorded at 237,079 tons in 2020, putting it among the Countries with the Highest Tobacco Consumption.

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